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“Chieftainship Institution in the Hill Areas & Panchayati Raj System”

Written by  Dr. R. Sanga Published inR-Sanga Tuesday, 07 February 2017 18:44
“Chieftainship Institution in the Hill Areas & Panchayati Raj System”

~ Dr. R. Sanga

 

Thupatna:

 

All India Radio-Imphal Station, Paite Programme ah Houlimna (Talk) hun piak a ka om ziak in kipahhuai ka sa hi. January 31, 2017 ni 04:20 pm in Paite Program hun a suahkhiak in om hi. Tuni houlimna thupi: “Chieftainship Institution in the Hill Areas and Panchayati Raj System” kichi piak in ka om a; Manipur context a houlimna nei dek i hi uhi. Thupi nih in khentheih hi. Khatna ah, Chieftainship Institution; Nihna ah, Panchayati Raj System…

 

Tulel a Manipur Hill Areas huapsung Kivaihawmna sawngthum bangdan in om hi: (1) Village Level: Hiai omzia bel khua khat ahihke’h vengsung khat ah Village Authority kiteel in kivaihawmna mumaltak om hi. (2) District Level: Autonomous District Council, mipi deihtelna dungzui in Councillors kitelna kumnga hal zel in om hi. (3) State Level: Hill Areas Committee kichi Manipur Legislative Assembly ah Tribal MLAs 20 om a, amaute Hill Areas Committee Members hi ngal mai uhi.

 

I. Chieftainship Institution in the Hill Areas (Manipur Tang-Gam a Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna):

 

Nitum seng lou gam vaihawmtu, England Kumpi in singtang mite teenna Gam-Leitangh (Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas) kichi Gamsung nangawn ah hong lut in, Gam-mang leh Leinuai hauhsaknate enlah in gam hon keek hiaihiai uhi. Greek City State bang mai a khawsung Hausate, pawlam akipan kuamah thuneihkhum hi het lou a, amau-le-amau kivaihawm uh ahi chih chiantak a thei uh ahihman in khawsung gam-leitangh huapsung gamgi chiamtehna leh Hausa Khawnbawl Upate nuai a Kivaihawmna (Chieftainship Institution) theihpihna British Political Agent, J. Shakespeare (1905-1908) in gam-lai agelhthoh in Tribal Chiefs, Hausate khut  ah ana pia hi. Huai gam lai agelhthoh a ana piakte uh tunitan in khua khat sung ah vaihawmtu leh gam-leitang neitu hihna Hausate khut ah piak ahih uh toh kiton in gou kiluah sawn a paitou zel in, Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna tunitan Manipur State ah bei nai lou hi. Huaiziak in, Hausate leh a ainah-phahpihte uh khut ah Gam-Leitangh tung a thuneihna tunitan ana omtou nilouh ahi chih mipite’n theihpih diing in ahoih hi. 

 

Gam-Leitangh neitu hihna pen i pu-i-pa tawndan ngeina leh akhang-a-khang a gou kiluah a chiindan ngeina a kibulphuh in gam-mang leh a hauhsakna amaute thuneihna nuai ah om in, neek-le-dawn gam-mang (forest) akipan lakhawm a ana khawsakhawm, tualsuak mite khut ah ateenna uh huapsung a leitung leh leinuai hauhsakna chiteng om liuliau ahi chih michih in theihsiam mahmah diing a kul-le-poimoh ahi. Pawlam akipan thuneihkhum kuamah om lou “Independent” mahmah ana hidan ahi. Tuni in tualsuak mite gam neihdan khovel mundang a om mite toh tehkaak in akituam mahmah hi. Pu-pa ngeina-tawndan (Customary and Traditional Practices) a kibulphuh a gam-leitang anei mite i hi uhi. Khua sat a, tua mun a teeng in, mohpuakna chiteng leh khosung kivaihawmna ah haksatna leh buaina maituah gige a Makaitu hihna lentouden in, Hausa leh a Khawnbawl Upate’n gam ana vengbit uh ahihman in, Khawsung Hausa (Chief of the Village) chih min piak a om pen a suan-le-pakte un tunitan Hausa hihna dinmun luahtou zel in, hiai “Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna” kichi pen a paitou nilouh ahi hi. Huaiziak in, Hausa in zong gam-leitangh neitu ahihna pen azat khelh het louh diing ahi. Aziak bel, Gam-Leitang tung ah thuneihna tengteng (absolute power) amah, Hausapa mimal khut ah om vek sipsip hi lou ahi chih atheihsiam a, khawsung mipite toh gam-leitangh neikhawm uh ahihlam aphawk mahmah diing ahi hi. Banghang hiam chihleh, sa-le-gaal aom chiang a pangkhawm a, doukhawm zel uh ahihman in ‘Community land holding system’ toh kibang ahi chih Hausate in zong a mangngilh het louh diing uh ahi.

 

Gam-Leitang neihdan tuabang geih, ‘community land holding system’ Nagate lak ah ana om a, tunitan zuiden lai uhi. “Community Land Holding System” a apai uh ziak in, Gam itna diktak Manipur Singtang mite lak ah Nagate in theisiam diak uh ahi diam chih sim in om hi. “Ka pu, ka pa uh akipan Gam-Leitang neitu hihna anei Nam ka hi uh” chi in hangsantak in gam huutna toh kisai mimal chih pang tinten maimah uhi. Khua khat a teengkhawm mite pen mimal chiat in amau min a gam nei tiltel uh ana hidan ahi. Khawsung Kivaihawmna toh kisai Khullakpa/Headman khawteng ah om veve uhi. Mimal a gam kineih tiltel himahle uh midangte kiang ah amah, mimal in amawkna a zuakkhiak bel akikhaam bikbek uhi. Imphal hiam ahihke’h mundang ah inn-le-lou nei in huai gam neitu khat peuhpeuh khawsa mahleh, agaal akipan akepnop sungteng amaute lak a Khullakpa/Headman in atawkbuai kei himhim hi. Zohuan (Farming) bawl hiam, thildang bang hiam agam neihna huapsung pen amah, mimal deihdan a keem in zalentak in abawlthei gige hi.       

 

Nidanglai a Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna thupi mahmah leh mi kuapeuh in zahtak petmah uh ahi chih tangpi theih ahi hi. Himahleh, India pen Leitung buppi a Mipi-vaihawmna toh kisai alianpen ahih toh kiton in Manipur tang-gam kivaihawmna zong hon zel kha ahi ngei diing a, Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna pen hong dau hiaihiai in, tuni chiang ngial in houh milip in thupi bawl lou leh apoimohna diktak phawkpha baan lou in koihdap in om hi. British Crown (England Kumpi) in bel thupi ngaih mahmah in, theihpihna ana bawlsak hi. Gam-leitangh toh kisai aneitu hihna genna in, Hausate pen “Lord of the soil/land” title ana pehialdan uh ahi. 

 

Buhsun-Saliang, Tangseu khawsung mipite’n Hausate kiang ah ana pekhawm sek uhi. Hiai pen siah (tax) chikhat ahi peuhmah hi. Jesu Krist in, “Pasian thilte Pasian kiang ah pia unla, Kaisar thilte Kaisar kiang ah pia un...” achih bang deuh in, siah piak kichi pen mihing pianken a ana omsa ahi chih theihsiam diing in ahoih hi. Siah piak a om leh apetu (Tax & tax-payer) in neitu hihna a namkip mahmah a, pawlam akipan kuamah in hon thuneihkhum lou ahihdan achian nawn bok hi. 

 

 II.Panchayati Raj Institution:

 

Tanglai akipan Manipur ah tualsung chih ah mahni a kivaihawmna pen Valley (Phaijang) leh Hill Areas (Singtang Gam) huapsungte ah tunitan kivaihawmna toh kisai atuam, chinih in paitouden lai hi. Mangkang gamkeekte hun akipan Phaijang huapsung khua chih ah tualsung a mahni kivaihawmna (village councils) omsate pen ‘Panchayati Raj Institution’ a kheek in ana om hi. Manipur phaijang huapsung khua 13 ah Panchayats 1903 kum a koih in om hi (i.e., Bishnupur, Irilbung, Kakching, Khongampat, Lamshang, Lilong, Mayang Imphal, Moirang, Nambol, Sagolmang, Wabagai, Waikhong leh Wangoi). 

 

Panchayati Raj Institution nuai a Tunai Khantouhna leh Tulel Dinmun:

 

Phaijang (valley) ah 1955 tan panchayat system zui in mahni a kivaihawmna ana paitou nilouh hi. 1960 in tulai vai deuh a panchayat system nuai a kivaihawmna pen etkhiakna in Manipur Phaijang-Rural-Areas huapsungte ah puaklut in om mahleh lohching taktak lou hi. Kum 1972 a Manipur statehood a dopsang ahih toh kiton in Panchayati Raj Act, 1975 bawlkhiak in om a; pachayat system nuai ah kivaihawmna sawngthum a bawlkhiak in om hi: (1) Village Level ah Gram Panchayat, (2) Block Level ah Panchayat Samiti leh (3) District Level ah Zilla Parishad hiai Daan (Panchayati Raj Act) nuai ah bawlkhiak in om hi. Pachayat Institutions pen kum 22 hiai Daan nuai ah zuih leh zat in om hi. India Daan Bupi Bawlphatna 73rd veina 1972 toh kituak in ama a Daan omsa pen thaimang a Daan thak, “The Manipur Panchayati Raj Act, 1994” kichi April 23, 1994 a bawlkhiak in om hi.

 

Hiai Daan (Act) nuai a kivaihawmna ah thil poimoh mahmah hiai bang om hi: Khatna ah, village level ah gram panchayat leh district level ah Zilla Parishad bawlkhiak in om hi. Nihna ah, mi 3,000 saang a tawmzaw lou ~ 6,000 saang a tamzaw lou population omna khuate ah Gram Sabha bawlkhiak in om hi. Thumna ah, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes leh Numeite a diing biik in dinmun sehkholhsa (seats reservation), offices leh kiteelna ah amaute a diing bawlsak in om uhi.  Lina ah, daan in apompih chinih (two statutory bodies), state finance commission leh state election commission toh kituak hiai Daan (Act) nuai ah bawlkhiak in om hi. Ngana ah, India Daan Bupi Schedule 11th –na a kigente gram panchayats leh zilla parishad ah suanlut in om hi. Gukna ah, State leh Central Government consolidated fund akipan in sum-le-pai zat diing hiai Daan sung ah kiteltak a bawlkhiak in om bok hi.

 

Chiamteh Diing Thu Poimoh Khenkhatte:

  1. Phaijang a Gram Panchayat pen Hill Areas a Village Authority dinmun toh kibang ahi. Himahleh, Chieftainship Institution pen Tribal Custom, Tradition & Culture a kibulphuh ahihman in Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna leh Gram Panchayat dinmun kibang het lou zel hi.
  2.  State leh Central Government ‘Consolidated Fund’ akipan Chieftainship Institution ah sum-le-pai zat diing daan toh kituak a sehkhiaksak in om lou hi. The Manipur (Hill Areas) Village Authority Act, 1956 dungzui in khawsung Hausa (Chief of the village) pen Village Authority ah Ex-Officio Chairman ahi a; himahleh Panchayati Raj Institution in Financial Power aneih bangbang Hill Areas huapsung ah Chieftainship Institution in thuneihna  bangmah anei kei hi. 
  3. Manipur phaijang huapsung a Rural Areas kivaihawmna, Panchayati Raj Institution nuai a thuneihnate toh kikim Manipur Hill Areas huapsung a om, Chieftainship Institution in zong Daan toh kituak in thuneihna nei samleh kibatlualna om hi diing hi.    
  4. Gam-Leitangh humbitna di’n bel Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna aom touh zel thilhoihtak ahi a, himahleh khantouhna leh mipite neekzonna leh kivaihawmna toh kisai in bel nawngkaina tampi om hi.
  5. Chieftainship Institution (Hausa Inpi Vaihawmna) pen tulai vai toh kituak deuh a bawlphatna om theileh mipite a diing in ahoih in aphatuam ngei diing hi.
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