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Laimal leh Laigelhdan

Written by  Dr Tualchin Neihsial Published inGeneral Saturday, 17 March 2018 18:46
Laimal leh Laigelhdan

Mizoram a om Mimbung khua a EBCC leh PLS kithuah a Seminar a neih uh 2009 kum,January 25 ni a ka paper present edited edition ahi.

Laimal leh Laigelhdan

©copyright reserved by the author

 

by~ Dr Tualchin Neihsial

 

1.1:Lai i neihna: Tanglai hun a kipat in ‘Lai’ cih kammal i na nei ua, khanglui tangthute ah Zangpitam a teengte’n savun a kigelh lai a nei ngei ua, himahleh uipi gilkial khat in hon neekgaihsak hi ci in na gen uhi. Zangpitam khuate mah bang in Luika khua a teeng masate’n zong singhawng a kigelh lai na nei uhi.Tua lai pen tuallaam inn sung a a koih uh gampalak meikaang in a khua uh a peh man in kangtumkha hi.Kuamah lai thei a om louh ciang un patau in Zangpitam khote’n Kawlpi a asanggamte uh lai thei khat sam in laimal, simdan leh a gelhdan kihilhsak sawm uhi.Lai hilh diing a Kawlpi a kipan Zangpitam khua zuan a hong kuan hinapi, Zangpitamte’n tavak a zoulou ana khoh kum uh ahi a, tua a lou ua luut vasa, zusa leh gamsate matna dia tuithaang, pial leh a dangdang a kamte uh a muh ciang in “Hi bang a thaangkam thei in lai thei lou kei un teh” ci in Zangpitam khua pha lou in Kawlpi lam ah kilehkiiksan hi.

 

Huai hun a kipan Pu Pauchinhau in laipian biakna[sakhua] leh lai[script] a muhkhiak masiah, lai kimangsak siang hi.Unau Thadou, Hmar leh Luseite’n Vaipau a lai cihna Likha apan kila lehkha cih zatpih ua, Falam leh Khalkhate’n Kawlte’n lai a cihna uh Sa cih zatpih uhi. Lai i cih English ah script kichi ahi a,laimal i cih ciang in Greek alphabet a laimal masa nihte alpha leh beta kigawm“alphabet” a hong kipan ahi hi.

 

2.1. Laimal hong kipatna bul: Leitung ah Phoenician-te’n laimal[alphabet] bawlkhe masapen uh hi. Phoenician sumdawngte a kipan in Greekte’n hiai lai gelhdan leh kammal gindan hon theikhia in, amaute a kipan in a lasawn uhi.BC 800 ma lam in Greekte’n hiai Phoenician’symbol[ciamtehna] 22 lasawn in amau awgin toh kituak diing in a hon puahpha thak uhi.Greek pau a consonant tampi kisam lou ahihman in unusual consonant signs 5te pen vowel sound in hon gingsak uhi. Phoenician alphabet [laimal] masa , aleph a cih uh bawngtal (ox) cihna ahi a, Greek ah alpha (α - A) hong suak hi. Tua mah bang in laimal nihna  kici inn (house) cihna Greek a beta (β - B) hong suak hi.

 

2.2. Laimal hong kipatdan:Leitung bup ah lai gelhdan hong kipatna bulpi – pictograms[alim a kigelh] kicite pawl ahi a, tanglai Aiguptate [Egypt] gam a hong kipan ahi hi.Aiguptate aa toh kibang sim ahihhang a amau a tuamdin pictogram hithou bangzah hiam a om a, huaite ahihleh Summerian, Elamite,Cretan,Hittite,India leh Chinate’ aa cihte khawng ahi uhi. Ahihhang in, hiai Aiguptate’ pictogram-te pen hong ki-ideogram (conventionalised pictograms)in BC 1500 kum vel a kipan in phonetization[aw-ginkhiak nei] in hong kibawl a, huai akipan in syllabary pawl khat hong kibawlkhia hi. Hiai syllabary-te pen acrophyny principle dungzui in consonant alphabet hong suak uhi. Etsakna diing in, Semitic ideograms –inn (house) i cih Beth () ahi a, Gimel () kichi camel [sangawngsau], Daleth () kici kongkhaak (door) cihna a hong kipan ahi uhi.

 

2.3. Manohna lam nei in lai kigelh: Lai khat peuh a kigelh ciang in manohna lam kineisak a, pawl khatte pen atung a kipan anuai lam manoh in kigelh hi.Gentehna diing in, China’ lai i cih khenkhatte lah khut taklam a kipan veilam manoh a kigelh pawl –adiak in, Arabic, Hebrew, Kharosthi i cihte ahi uh hi. Tua mah bang in, Greek laimal masapente zong a tuung[a kipat ciil]lam in taklam a kipan veilam manoh a kigelh ahi ua, BC 500vel  a kipan in veilam a kipan taklam manoh in hong kigelh thak hi.

 

2.4. Roman alphabet: Greekte a kipan in Etruscante’n laimal 26 hon bawlkhia ua, Rome mite’n Rome gambup a hon uktak un hiai Etruscante’ laimal avek a a laak louh hang un laimal 3te- theta, phi, khi pen namber 100, 1000, 500 leh 50 simna diing in hon la uhi. Etruscan’ laimal sigma pen S hon hisak in ks gin a ging diing in x behlap laimal nanungpen ah a koih uhi. BC 312 vel in Latin pau a Z gin a ging om lou ahihman in Z (Zeta) paikhia in laimal thak C pen bawllamdang zek in G hon bawlkhia uhi.

 

2.5     BC 100 hun in Greek kammal zenit leh zephyros teikhiakna [transliteration] diing in Y leh Z hon behlap nawn uhi. I leh J sik-le-taang in I kizang a, U leh V a kibang in kizang hi. Huai hunlai in W kici a om nai kei hi. Norman script a U aw-suah tuankhenna diing in English aw-suah W [semi-vowel = double U] hon behlap nawn uhi.J kici William Shakespeare[AD 1630] nung a hon behlap phet uh ahi hi.Tuni a leitung buppi a laimal kizang tangpipen Roman alphabet ahi hi.

 

2.6  Tua mah bang in,1904 kum in Lushai Hills ah Welsh Calvinistic Foreign Missionary,Rev. D.E.Jones leh Paite tangval Pu Vialphung[1889-1936] in Aizawl ah Paite Primer na bawlkhe mahle uh zat theih louh diing in suksiat in a om kici hi.Calcutta a om Imperial Library[tu a National Library] ah a bu[copy] omkha zenzen hiam ci a a kizon hang in kimu lou hi.Aizawl a kipan a Manipur Simtum gam a Presbyterian missionary a hong kuante’n Lusei [Duhlian] pau a kigelh Laisiangthou, Labu leh Lusei pau tungtawn in Tangthupha [Gospel] leh laipilna[education]hong sinsak uh hi.Manipur a Baptist Missionary leh Honorary Inspector of Schools,Rev.Pettigrew in American Baptist Mission-te’ luutna sung ah Mission[denomination] dang a luut thei kei diing ci a America a om denomination tuamtuam kithheihsiamna a neih uh pansan in,Manipur pen American Baptist comity huam sung a koih in,a gam a teengmite’ pau ahihkeileh gamdang pau,[Lusei pau a cihna] a kizang thei kei diing ciin na dal hi.Huai nunglam in Rev. Pettigrew’ phalna la in,Dr Crozier in Pu H.Chinlang leh a lawmte tonpih in Tedim pan Primer, labu leh Thukhun Thak [Thuciam Thak] bu tampi va pokhia uh hi.Dr Crozier in Primer,labu leh Laisiangthou lehkhiak thakthak kuul in nou pau a gelhsa leh khetkhiaksate na zangkhawm thei uh ci in tawlkhat sung hong zatpih man hi.Himahleh lai kat leh pau khat a i luankhawm diing deih lou a hon haza kuate hiam thubawl in,“Dr Crozier in Pasian in mi hehpihna a hauh mahmah man in awiloute nangawn ngaidam diing ahi a ci”cih leh sinsakna dik lou a sinsak” peuh ci a dikloupi a mi 3 min a Dr Crozier heek a hong om ciang in, ei lak a sem thei lou in,Presbyterian-te sang a leng ginna leh sinsakna thu a kuulmuut[conservative] zaw tham Baptist Mid-Mission-te’ etkol Alipore a om Burrow’s Memorial Christian Hospital[BMCH] ah hon kisuansan hi. Lai leh pau khat zatkhawm diing thu pen piang zou lou ahihman in, Rev.H.Nengzachin in Paite Sintungbu a hon bawlkhiak thak masiah, Lusei pau hong kizang kiknawn hi. Kiteenna lai[Marriage Certificate],Baptisma tanna lai[Baptismal Certificate] cihte khawng zong Lusei pau in kigelh vek a, anunglam in Paite pau in hong kikheek hi.

 

3.1. Khristian Misonarite’n lai nei loute aa diing in Roman Alphabet hong patpih uh: Mangkang kumpite’n India hong uk lai un India Malsuah gam a khristian misonari hong luut masate’n Bengali script leh Assamese script zang in Khasi leh Garo paute gelh in na bulpatpih uhi. Ahihhang in hiai in deih bang a ma a sawn theihlouh ziak kia hi lou in, laimal theih diing mahmah zong tam lua hi.1842 kum khawng a kipan in Rev Thomas Jones in Roman laimal[alphabet] zang a Khasi pau a Thukhun Thak a gelhkiak pen lohcing zaw leh theihbaih zaw hi in a theikhia uhi.Hibang a zuihnouneelsa [experienced] hoihtak a neihte uh ziak in 1893 kum in Assam[tuin Meghalaya kici]gam sung a om khua khat Tura ah American Baptist Mission Conference om a, huai khawmpi ah hiai bang in thupuukna na bawl uhi.[Hiai hun tan in Chin Hills leh Manipur Hills ah Khristian misonari kuamah luut om nai lou uhi].

“...in the opinion of this conference the Roman Alphabet is the best for the Hill tribes,     about Assam, that have no written language and it was resolved that ‘Italian system of pronunciation of the Roman character should be adhered to,

Whereas

The Missionaries of the Union are commencing work on both the Assam and Burma side of the Hills between Upper Assam and Burma, and it may be expected that at no distant day our missionaries on the two sides will be touching hard across these hills; and as it seems desirable that contiguous tribes have the same alphabet, therefore, Resolved. That clerk of the conference be instructed to send this expression of our opinion to the missionaries for the Cachar and the Chins of Burma.”

 

Paite pau a i lehkhiak aleh, atung a American Baptist Conference Report,1893,p 8 hiai dan ahi hi:

[1] Hiai khawmpi’ ngaihdan in gelhkiak pau nei lou Assam gam a singtangmi, aa diing in Roman laimal[alphabet]hoih a kisapen a, “Italian system of pronunciation of the Roman character” zuih diing in thupuukna bawl ahi hi,huai ahihman in,

 

[2]Union sung a missionarite’n Upper Assam leh Burma gamgi a om singtangmite lak a nnasep panta ahihman un,lametna dan in ni[hun] sawtlou cik sung a mual-le-taang kaantan a nnasemte’n kikhutzopna kinei nuam pah diing ahihman in, laimal[alphabet] kibang a neih uh deihhuai leh kilawm a, huaiziak in,

 

[3] Conference a clerk in Kachin leh Burma a Zoumite[Chinte] lak a misonarite kiang ah hiai thupuuknate na khaak hen cih pha kisa hi

Atung a thupuukna omsa bang in Baptist Misonarite gentaak louh London a om Arthington Aborigins misonarite leh Presbyterian misonarite tengteng in zong a luutna gamte uah hiai Roman alphabet a hon poluut chiat uhi.Ei toh kisaikha diak, Baptist misonarite luutna Chin Hills,Ukhrul leh mun dangdang ah Roman alphabet a zatpih ua, Presbyteriante luutna leh huzapna nuai a om Khasi, Jaintia Hills leh Lushai Hills cihte ah modified [bawllemsa]Roman laimal hong kizang hi.Gen tam kul lou in, gam khat leh mission khat nuai omkha tuung hi le hang i laimal[alphabet] zat uh kibang[kikhat] diing hi.

 

3.2. Phonetic Hunterian system of orthography: Lushai Hills a J H Lorrain [Pu Buanga] leh FW Savidge [Sap Upa] in Roman alphabet modified [bawllemsa leh leptawm] khat a patpih uh a tuung in hiai bang ahi hi:

A     Â         B         D          E         

F     G         H         I           J

K     L         M         N         O

P     R         S          T         U

V     Z         CH

ci in kivual [kigelh] a A pen Aw chi a, J pen chei chi a lam ahi.1897 kum in D E Jones [Zousaphluia] leh Edwin Rowland [Zousapthara] in Pu Buanga bawlsa pen hiai bang in hon lemthak uhi:

A                  AW     ÂW     B         CH      D

E          Ê          F           G        H         I           Î

K         L          M         N         O         P          R

S          T          Ţ          U         Û         V         Z

 

3.3. Kawlgam Zoumite lai hong kipatdan:Kawlgam in a huapkhak Zoumite lak a Pasian’ thu nasepna pen kum 1837 in kipan a, Zoumite lak a khristian suak masapen zong numei melhoih mahmah khat ahi hi.Ahihhang in ei Zougam leh Zoumite lak a thunasepna hong kipat taktak bel 1899 kum ahi hi.1899 kum November 16 ni Dr A.E.Carsonte nupa pen Khalkha[Haka]khua ahong tung ua, ei gam a Pasian’ thu hong puak masapen ahi uhi.1902 kum March kha ni 21 ni in Dr E.H.East zong Khalkha khua hong tung hi.1910 kum in Khalkha kipan in Tedim ah Dr Joseph Herbert Cope-te nupa hong kisuan uhi.Rev.Carson-te nupa in Dr E.H.East’ huhna toh kum 5 sung Haka pansan in Pasian’ thu nasepna pan mahle uh kuamah a ngahzou kei hi.Hiai toh kisai in Rev(Dr)E.H.East in 1909 kum,February 15 ni a, Rih Lake[dil] pansan a a laigelhna ah,“From what I have seen, it is quite probable that had our Mission undertaken work up here in the beginning, the Northern and Central sections would are this have been Christianized. I also know that the Superintendent of the Hills suggested to thefounder of our work to start in Tedim, but it seemed best to him to take to Haka as a start” na chi hi.Tua a gente Paite pau in gen thak le hang,“kei muhna dan in ci leng mission nasepna pen Mallam[Saklam] leh gamlai apan kipankha masa zaw hileh nakpitak in baihzaw diing a, khristian zong suakkhin baih zaw diing uhi.Chin Hills a Superintendentpa’n zong Tedim pan a mission nasepna kipat diing thu na gen ngeel zaw hiven, aphuanciilpa [Rev. Carson] in Khalkha a ana pat khit man lel a kipankha lou ahia cih zong ka thei”a cihna ahi hi.Dr.E H.East’ gen bang in Chin Hills a piangthak masapente zong Tedim gam mi[Khosakte-Pausuan,Khamciang,Thuamhang leh Dimkhawcing] ahi uhi. Dr J H Cope in 1910 kum apan in Tedim khua pansan in nasep hong kipan a,hiai mipa’n Roman Alphabet bulphuh in laigelh patpih hi.Hiai Roman laimal zang a lai kibawlte pen Pauchinhau’ Lai leh Kawl laite sang a leng theihbaih zaw ahihman  in leh ni 7 sung khawng a thei zou uh ahihman in ‘Ni Sagih Lai’ zong a ci uhi.

 

4.1. Pau himhim dynamic ahi: Pau pen apautu/azangtute mah bang in thilhing [dynamic] ahihman in a kikheek gige khat ahi. Pau khempeuh ah pau lui, pau thak, pau hoih, pau sia, pau si, pau khanglian cihte om thei hi.Pau a kikheek mah bang in a kigelhdan [spelling] zong kikheek in kipuahpha toutou ahi hi.Gentehna diing in, kumzabi 12 hunlai a biakna late lak a khat A Moral Ode or Poema Morale kici ah:

Ich aem elder den ich wes, a wintre and a lore:

Ic waelde more panne ic dude: mi wit ah to be more.

Wel lange ic habbe child ibean a worde and ec a dede.

Den ic beo a wintre eald, to yung i eom a rede’

 

Tulai English ah hiai bang in hong kigelhta hi:

I am older than I was, in winter and lore.

I wield more than I did: my wit ought to be more.

Well long I have been a child, in word and eek in deed.

Though I be old in winters, too young I am in rede (counsel)

                        (C.L. Wrenn :The English Language[1993], pp 113)

 

Laipau kia hilou in Laisiangthou sung a thumal gawmdan leh gelhdan[spelling and word formation]nangawn nakpitak in hong kikheek hi.1611 kum a King James Version kisuahkhia ah S.Iohn[John] 3:16-17 hibang in kigelh hi:

For God so loued y world, that he gaue his only begotten

Sonne: that whosoeuer beleeueth in him, should not perish,

But haue euerlasting life. For God sent not his Sonne

into the world to condemne the world: but that the  world

through him might be saued.

1979,1980,1983,1985 leh 2004 kum a Thomas Nelson in Thukhun Thak [New King James Version] a suahkhiak uah hiai bang in spelling hon gelh uhi:

For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.“For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.”

 

American Lexicographer Noah Webster (1758-1843) in 1783 kum a American Spelling Book a bawl leh 1828 kum a American Dictionary of the English Language a gelh ah, favor, nabor, hed, proov, hiz, giv, det, ruf, wel [favour, neighbour, head, prove, his, give, debt, rough, well] ci in na guang hi. G.A.Grierson in akaihkhawm leh a etdik[compiled and edited] Linguistic Survey of India Volume III Tibeto-Burman Family Part III “Specimens of the Kuki-Chin and Burman Groups”sung a Paite pau akoihtel zong Major Shakespear in 1900 kum a Lusei gam a Paite omte akipan a laakTapa Taimang Tangthu a kipan ahi a, huai ah hici in gelh hi:

 

Mi kua-hiam-a ta-pa pa-nhi a nei-a. A-nao-pang-za in a pa lak-a, ‘He pa, go ka chan-ai on-pia-in, ‘a chi a. Chin a sum-te pa-ni-u lak-a  a ham-a. Ni shat-lo-tak in a naopang-za in sum a vek in akham-a,gam la-tak-a a pai-pih-ta’

 

Pu Vialphung’ Diary[Kaihlam 1/1/1919]:

“Hiai kum in hi a leng a, a lu uleh a nung uh a na a, ashi ding teng a hai ua, ni 10 na le a om kei a, ashi pahpah uhi. Januari 1 ni akipan Feb.3 tan in mi pasal 20 leh numei 41 ahi.A vek in 61 ahi.”

 “Huai chiah a kum mah Epril 25 akipan shum phuk a leng nawn a, Awgast 13 tan in a veng a. Hiai tan kal in mi 91 a shi. Chi nat shung a kha in kha 3 leh ni 23 ahi a, aniin ni 133 ahi

Hiai tan lel et in leng,1919 kum a spelling leh tulai a i zat spelling a kilamdang in a kikhe mahmah cih i mu hi:Gentehna in, shi=si,shum phuk =suumphuk; chi nat=chinat; shung=sung cihte.Pu Vialphung in a laigelhna ah Shuang kot, shawm, shang, shuangdai, haosa, shum, shuangdawh,shung, shi, Dishember, Epril,Awgast ciin gelh hi.

 

4.2. Pau akhangtoutou ahi: Pau i cih a kibehlap, a kipuahpha toutou leh a khangtoutou ahi a, tua toh kizui in a gelhdan zong a hun toh kituak a kikheek leh kipuahpha toutou ahi. Lai lam[script/literature], syllabus,prescribed textbooks,technologies,inventions,model cihte ah latest[a thak leh a nanungpen]apoimoh ua,khangthu leh phung-le-taang kisuutna[genealogy leh history] khawng ah bel upapen[oldest]a kuulna/ a kisapna om thei hi.Nidang in bii inn, gua a kibawl inn, dap inn, sing inn ah i teeng ua, tu ciang in Pasian hehpihna toh sing inn, langva inn, teeklei inn, suang inn, siik inn khawng ah i teengta uhi.Ka pu ka pate ua kipat bii inn a teeng ka hi uh, ka culture[ngeina leh tawndan] kikheng/kikheek thei ngei lou diing cih paulap in langva inn, sing inn, suang inn ahi thei kei diing ci in “die-hard-tak in” pankhoh sawm le hang tulai hun aa diing in khanletna diing lampi tam het lou diing hi. Lai leh pau i chih zong tua bang dan mah ahi hi.

 

4.3  1946 kum khawng a kipan Rev.H.Nengzachin in Sintung Bu a bawl leh Class 1-text-book dia 1974 kum a Sintung Bu[Paite Laithak] kici a hon bawl thak lai in laimal 24 in a deih leh poimoh tengteng uh gelh thei vek leng ahi thei. BC 100 hunlai a Greek kammal zenith leh zephyros teikhiakna[transliteration] diing a Y,Z,leh huai nunglam pekppek a I leh J, U leh V, W leh J cih khawngte Roman alphabet a hon behlap uh toh kibang in, mi pau leh mi lai i theih a i simsiam theihna diing in laimal 24 ban ah Q[q],W[w]X[x],Y[y] cih tulai khantouhna toh kituak dia Roman alphabet 26 a kipom toh kiton a kilaluut/kipomkhawm ahi uhi. Quinine, Que, Quota, Question, query, Queensland, Quote,Queen Elizabeth, Headquarters[HQs], YPA, YMA, ZYA,,GWITE [Guite], ATWU, Social Welfare,CWA cih khawngte nuamtak leh haksatna om lou hial in kigen in kigelh ziahziah hi.Ei bangbang a Roman alphabet zang Thadou Kuki,Tangkhul, Kachin, Karen leh Englishte mahmah in China, Chin, Chairman, Change, Chance etc cihte gelhna ah buaina[problem] a nei ngei kei himhim uh hi.PLS in a paipihdan in a poimoh leh a kisapna mun ah gawmkhawm diing laimalte pen gawmkhopsa/gawmkhawmsa a koih lou in, anuai a bang a gawm tawm diing cih ahi hi: A+W=AW, N+G=NG, C+H=CH, K+H=KH, O+U=OU, P+H=PH, S+H=SH, T+H=TH.

       

 

PHOENICIAN ALPHABET

 

 

 

 

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