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Na theihna puanbuuk kaaipalh in

Written by  Dr Tualchin Neihsisal Published inGeneral Thursday, 26 April 2018 16:06
Na theihna puanbuuk kaaipalh in

Na theihna puanbuuk kaaipalh in

PAU TAMPI A NEI  MINAM LEH PAU KHAT  NEI MINAM©

[Multilingual Nation and the National language]

©copyright reserved by the author/writer

~ by : Dr Tualchin Neihsisal

Minam khat in pau[language] khat zang na hi maizenleh pen bangzahta in kipumkhatna om diing ahi hiam cih gen louh a maang ahi hi. Gam khat ah pau cii tuamtuam tampi om mahleh, a gam a teengmite’n a gam sung pau diing un pau tualleeng khat teelkhia in azangkhawm thei vek uh hi. Mangkaang gam I cih Great  Britain ah, pau lian pipi thum kizang mahleh,kumpi nnasepna, kithuzaaktuahna /kikawmtuahna diing in pau tualleengpen “Mikaang pau”[English] kizang hi. Lam khat a gen in, minam khat hinapi a pau khat ke[bek] nei gam [monolingual nation] pen gam hampha lua khat suak hi.

 

Ahihhang in,pau tampi nei minam[multilingual nation] in minnam/gamsung a zat diing pau khat [single national language]a kibawlkhiak theihleh bang mah nawngkaaina,tuantualna leh buaina a om tuan zenzen kei hi. Bang teng hileh, leitungbup gam tampi ah,adiakdiak in, Soviet Unionm leh China gam khawngte ah minam tampi a om mah bang in, pau tampi a kizang hi.Gam khenkhat ah houh minam pau leh gamsung pau diing teelkhiak/sehkhiak tuam cih om louh gam zong om veve hi.Huci bang gamte ah minam pau[national language] dia bang pau zat diing ahi hiam ci a mipi mai a kiseelna leh kinialna[public debates] om thu i theihkhaak zong om hi.

 

Etsakna diing in, Switzerland gam pen gam lian het lou himahleh minam pau 4-German, French, Italian leh Rhactoman paute a kizang hi.[Rhaetoroman kici pau pen[Rhaeto] Romansh ahihkeileh Latin pau zong kici ahi a,pau innkuan bul-le-baal suutna ah Indo-European languages nuai ah Italic Sub-family lak ah kikoih hi. Hiai sub-family nuai ah a pau dang omte ahihleh Latin,Oscan-Ombrian leh Romance paute[French,Italian,Portuguese,Spanish leh adangdangte ahi hi].Alehlam pang ah, Canada gam pen gam lian lua khat himahleh minam pau diing in Mikaang pau[English] leh French pau a kizang hi.

 

Nidanglai Soviet Union in minam pau diing cih tuan a nei kei.Tua naak sang in, a gammite’ pau tengteng a kikim leh a kibang vek in koih hi. Ahucih ziak mah in Soviet Union ah pau 50 val a kizang hi. Soviet Union sung a state khenkhat a diak in Uzbekistan,Georgia,Armenia khawngte ah amau state kivaihawmna ah amau pau ciat a zang ua,himahleh Central Soviet state toh kisai peuhmah ah bel Russia pau a kizang a, pau dangdangte pom theih ahi kei leuleu hi.Mexico leh Sweden gamte [leh Czechoslovakia leh Yugoslavia gamte] ah pau 2 sang a tamzaw minam pau in kizang hi. Afghanistan ah zong pau 2-Persian leh Pashto-tuni tan in a kizang tuaktuak hi.

 

LAI[SCRIPT] LEH PAU[LANGUAGE] KIBAT LOUHNA

Lai[script] leh pau[language] thil kibang[kikhat] ahi kei a, a tuampi khat ahi hi.Hiai ah lai i cih ciang in “Script” i cihna ahi a, pau i cih ciang in “language” i cihna ahi hi.Etsakna diing in, Hindi, Marathi leh pau khenkhatte a hong  kigelhkhiak ciang in Nagari Script [Nagari’ lai] in kigelh hi. Hindi leh Marathi pau kici pau kibang het lou leh pau tuampi ahih baan ah, Nagari pau kici a tuam mawngmawng a om zenzen kei hi. Mi khenkhat in hiai thu theikhial in Hindi pau bang “Nagari pau’ a sa mawkmawk uh hi. India Mallam ah Nagari’ lai zang in lai a kigelh a, India Simlam ah, a gamsung a lai kimukhete/kibawlkhete[regional scripts]mah  in a kigelh hi. Bengal gam ah Bengali lai “Bangla Script” a kizang a, Orissa gam ah Oriya lai in a kigelh hi. Hindute’ laibu siangthou “Veda” kici gelhkhiak leh sutkhiak diing thu a hong omlai in pau-le-haam siamna tungtuan nei leh Sanskrit pau a mi kiva mahmah,German gam a piang ahihhang a Britishmi khat,Friedrich Max Muller[1823-1900] in bang lai [script] a gelhkhiak leh sutkhiak diing ahi hiam cih thu ah buaina na tuak hi.Benaras a Hindu sakhua makaite’ lai zat “Nagari Script” zang a sutkhiak diing ahi cih thupuukna hon laak a kipan in Sanskrit laibute pen Nagari lai in hong kigelhkhe pan a, mun tuamtuam ah leng huai lai mah zang in laibute gelhkhia in laibu tampi hong kibawlkhia hi.

 

Calcutta University in zong a zahtaak mahmah uh Vidyasagar’ nasep etton a nei in Sanskrit lai gelhna leh sutkhiakna peuhmah ah Nagari Lai hon zang ua,himahleh khutgelhte[manuscripts] ah bel Bangla script mah hon zangzomtou uh hi. Hiai laigelhsate siiksan[pansan] a “Devabhasha”[pasiante’ pau] sutkhiak a hong om ahihman in Nagari pen “Devanagari” cih min puaksak[putsak] in hong om hi.Hindu’ pasiante pen Sanskrit pau zang a pau ahi uh hia hi lou cih leng ciangtak a theih ahih louh baan ah Devanagari lai[script] a kigelh tuung mah ahi uh hia hi lou cih zong a cetna theih ahi kei. Nagari lai taisan in Roman laimal[Roman script] zang in Sanskrit kigelh hileh zong Sanskrit ahihna khiam tuan lou diing hi.Tua mah bang in Hindi hiam ahihkeileh Bangla[Bengali] hiam ahihkeileh Roman laimal in kigelh mahleh Hindi leh Bangla ahihna khiam tuan lou[kikheek tuan lou] hial diing hi. Hiai toh kibang in, Urdu[giahphual pau=camp language] pau pen Parso-Arabic lai a kigelh himahleh Arabic ahihkeileh Persia pau hiam suak tuan lou in India pau mah hi veve hi.India i cih pau cii tuamtuam tampi omna gam ahih kia hi lou in, lai [script] tampi a kizatna gam zong ahi hi.

 

JUDA LEH KHRISTIANTE’ LAISIANGTHOU KIGELHNA PAUTE:

Juda[Israel] leh  Khristiante’ Laisiangthou thute pen a tuung in pau 3: [1]Hebru[Hebrew],[2] Aram pau[Aramaic], leh [3] Greek [Greek pau tualleeng/Koine Greek] in hong kigelhkhe masapen hi.Mi khenkhatte’n hiai pau[language] 3te pen theikhial in pau si[dead languages] ciin koih mah leh uh,pau si hi zenzen lou hi.

 

1. Hebru[Hebrew] kici tulaitak a Israel gam a pau kizang ahi a; Aram pau[Aramaic] kici tulai a Syria gam khopi Damascus leh mun dang khenkhat in a zat uh pau himahleh leitung a taksa pua a Toupa Jesu hong leenlai Palestina gam a pau tualleengte lak a khat ahi hi.[Palestina cih kammal pen Greek khangthu suut leh gelhsiam,khangthute’pa=father of history cih a om, Herodotus [BC 485-425] in hiai Palestine gam kiim-le-kiang genna a hon zat,King James Version[KJV] nasan in 1611 kum a kipan hon zat ahi hi-Lalkhiakna[Exodus] 15:14;Isai 14:29,31].Hebrew pau i cih pau-le-haam innkuan bulsuutna ah Noah’ tapa 3te lak a Shem’ suan-le-paakte’ pau zat ahihna ziak in Semitic Languages lak ah Western Semitic Family lak ah kikoih hi. Hebrew pau toh pau kitanau leh kihiangte ahihleh Aram pau[Aramaic],Syriac[Syria pau/Suria pau],Akkadian pau leh Arabic paute ahi uh hi.Hebrew lai pen a lamdan leh a tuam mahmahna khat ahihleh a kigelh ciang leh a kisim ciang in taklam a kipan veilam[from right to left] manoh a kigelh leh kisim ahih baan ah,a tuung in lai-aw[vowel] om pah lou in, laimung[consonant] vuak 23 a kibawl ahi hi.AD 600 leh AD 900 kikal in Palestina gam a Tiberias khopi pansan a om Hebru Laisiam[Hebrew Scholar] “Masorite” cih a omte’n lai-aw[vowel] 10 hon bawlbehna ziak un,Laisiangthou a thumal leh a thutuunte tung,nuai,sung leh kiim-le-kiang a pilvaangtak a lai-aw[vowel] ciamtehna a koihna ziak un tua a Laisiangthou kepbit leh zatte uh Masoretic text cih hong om hi.

 

2. Aramaic[Aram pau] :Hebru[Hebrew] pau toh kitanau leh ki-innkuan ahi a,Babulon [Babylon]te’ suak-le-sal a kum 70 sung Judate a va taan nung ua Palestina gam a pau tualleeng khat ahi hi.Hiai leitung a Toupa Jesu hong pian ma kum zabi bang zah hiam sung Judate’ pau zat ahih dungzui in Judate’ Laisiangthou ah hiai Aramaic kammal/thumal a hong kithuah/a hong kihelkhaak thu/thil lamdang ahi kei hi.Pianciil[Genesis] 31:47 ah mun min 2; Jeremiah 10:11 ah taang[verse] 1; Daniel 2:46-7:27]; leh Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-16 cihte pen Aramaic pau in kigelh hi.Hebru leh Aramaic pau kici pau kibang sim himahleh pau tuampi ahi cih ciamteh in.Aramaic laimal ningli nei[the square-shaped Hebew letters are actually borrowed from the Aramaic. So there is no difference in appearance between Hebrew and Aramaic, but the two are distinct languages” cih ahi hi.

 

Toupa Jesu’n hiai Aramaic pau zang ahi cih cetna tamloute ahihleh , “talitha kumi”[numei naupang thou in](Marka 5:4]; “ephpha tha”[kihongkhia in”(Marka 7:34); “Eli,Eli,Lama sabachthani”[Ka Pasian, ka Pasian,banghang a hon taaisan](Matthai 27:46;Marka 15:34); “Abba”[Aramaic pau a “Pa” cihna](Romete 8:15;Galatiate 4:6]; “Maranatha”[I Toupa, hong pai](I Kor.16:22).

 

3. Greek. Laisiangthou kia hi lou in Greekte’ patkhiak,phuhkhiak,muhkhiak,theihkhiak thil tampite’n tulai khovel tanpha huzaap in mun poimohtak a luahtou lai hi.Tulai a kithangsak mahmah “vote’, “democracy”, “Olympic games,” “marathon,” “theater/theatre” cihte taanglai Greekmite a kipankhe ngenta ahi uh hi.Taanglai a Greek mipil,gaalhat,lauh nei lou Alexander the Great leh a mihaat leh a mihaangsan Achilles leh Hercules-te’ taangthu kigen mangmoh hi. Suutlam [mathematician] leh thilgeelsiam[engineer] mahmah Archimedes in a patkhiak, a bawlkhiakte pen adiakdiak in :Archemedes screw cihte tuni tan in kizang den lai hi.

 

Taanglai Greek sinsaktu leh thil bulsuut mahmah khat Aristotle in a ngaihsutkhiakte lak ah telsuuina[science],suut[mathematics] leh kumpi kivaihawmna[government]cihte’n tulai khovel a luahpha mahmah lai uh hi.Khangthute’ pa[father of history] cih hial a om Herodotus[BC 485-425] kici in taangthu leh khangthu a gelhna diing in gamcih-mualcih ah va zin kawikawi in, gamla leh nai a mite houpih in a mun mahmah a thu va kancian hi. A thugelh “The Histories” kici ah Greek leh Persiate kidou thu gelh hi.

 

Damdawite’ pa[father of medicine] cih min piak a om hialpa, Hippocrates[BC 460-375] kici Greek daktor minthang,sinsaktu leh laigelhtu minthang mahmah khat ahi hi.Tuni tanpha a MBBS leh a kikimpih course tuamtuam zoukhia a,daktor nna[practice] a sep diing ciang un kiciamna khat “Hippocratic Oath” kici zong hiai mipa hon patkhiak ahi a, tuni tan kizui lai hi. “The Hippocratic Oath” kici daktor zou thakte’n hiai bang in kiciamna nei uh hi:

 

“I swear by Apollo the physician, and Asclepius, and Hygiea and Panecea and all the gods and goddesses as my witnesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this  Oath and this contract:

 

To hold him who taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents, to be a partner in life with him, and to fulfil his needs when required; to look upon his offsprings  as equals to my own siblings, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or contract; and that by the set rules, lectures, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge….

 

I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to the greatest ability and judgment, and I will do no harm or injustice to them

I will not give a lethal drug to any one if I am asked, nor will I advice such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion.

In purity and according to divine law will I carry out my life and my art.

Into whatever homes I go, I will enter them for the benefit of the sick, avoiding any voluntary act of impropriety or corruption, including the seduction of women or men, whether they are free men or slaves.

 

Whatever I see or hear in the lives of my patients, whether in connection with my professional practice or not, which ought not to be spoken of outside, I will keep secret, as considering all such things to private.

 

So long as I maintain this Oath faithfully and without corruption, may it be granted to me to partake of my life fully and the practice of my art, gaining the respect of all men for all time. However, should I transgress this Oath and violate it, may the opposite be my fate.”

 

Translated by Michael J. North, The US National Library of Medicine.

Tulai a damdawi lam toh kisai a ciamtehna a zat uh ciangkhun a guul kivial lim kigelh pen gamdaai a Mosi in Israelte kiang a daal a kibawl guul lim[brozen serpent] a bawlsak[Kisimna laibu/Numbers 21:1-9] a hi diam aw? i sakleh huai na hi lou in, Greekte’ damdawi’ pasian[the Greek god of medicine] ci a a ngaih uh,Asclepius’ lim-le-meel kilasawn na hi zaw hi. Hiai Greekte’ Asclepius in taanglai Aiguptate’ Imhotep[B.C.2700] toh kizopna nei hi in kigen hi.

Homer[BC 850] i cih taanglai Greek laphuaktu lian leh thupi ahih dungzui in mihangsan,thupi leh vualtungtuangte’ tungtang la a sau pipi kiphuak[epics]ahih bang in,Homer in kidouna taangthu “The Iliad” leh thil thupi mahmah a tuahte’ taangthu “Odyssey” kici a gelh hi. Judate lak a laigelhtu minthang Flavius Josephus[AD 37-100] in AD 70 kum a Jerusalem khopi leh juda minam sukbeina dia Judate leh Romete kidouna thu pen AD 75 kum in Judate’ Gaalpite[Wars of the Jews] cih thupi zang a a gelhkhiak suahkhiak  ahih  nung kum 20 in, “The Iliad” kici laibu etton a nei in, laibu dang “Judate’ Khanglui Taangthute”[The Antiquities of the Jews] kici leh amahmah hinkhua “The Life of Flavius Josephus” leh “Against Apion” leh adangdang hon gelhkhia hi.

Plato[BC 427-347] kici Aristotle’ sinsaktu ahi a,taanglai Greekmite lak a thil ngaihtuah detdet a bulsuuttu lian[great thinker] leh sinsaktu lian khat ahi hi.Thil ngaihtuahtu minthang[famous think] dang khat Socrates[BC 470-399] nuai ah Greek General leh khangthu suuttu Xenophon[BC 430-353] sinlai naupang ahi hiPlato in a laibu gelhte lak a minthang diak khat ahihleh BC 380 kum vel a a gelh “The Republic” kici ahi hi.

 

GREEK LAI LEH PAU IN THUKHUN LUI LEH THUKHUN THAK HONG KIGELHKHIAKNA

Thukhun Lui[Septuagint/LXX] hong kilehkhiakna thu:

Juda leh Khristiante’ Laisiangthou thute pen a tuung[a ciil] in pau 3:[1] Hebru[Hebrew];[2] Aramaic[Aram pau], leh[3]Greek[Koine Greek] in kigelhkhe masapen hi.Mi khenkhatte’n hiai pau 3te pen pau si[dead languages] dan in koihkha sek mahle uh,pau si ahi zenzen kei.[1] Hebru[Hebrew] pau kici tulaitak a Israel gam a pau kizang ahi a;[2]Aramaic[Aram pau] pen tulai a Syria khopi Damascus leh mun khenkhat a mihing tam loute’ pau zat himahlehleitung a taksa a Jesu hong leenlai a Palestina gam a pau tualleengte lak a khat ahi hi[Palestina  cih kammal/thumal pen Greek khangthu suutsiam leh khangthute’ pa ci a theih Herodotus in BC 500 vel khawng a kipan a hiai Palestine gam kiim-le-kiang teng huap a hon zat ahi hi.King James Version[KJV] khawng in zong Lalkhiakna/Exodus 15:14 leh Isai 14:29,31 ah hiai Palestina kammal hon zang hi.Hebrew pau i cih pau-le-haam innkuan bulsuutna ah Noah’ tapa 3te lak a Shem’ suan-le-paakte’ pau zat ahihna ziak in, Semitic languages lak ah leng Western Semitic Family lak ah kikoih hi. Hiai Hebrew pau toh kitanau leh ki-innkuante ahihleh Aram pau(Aramic), Syriac (Syria pau/Suria pau), Akkadian pau leh Arabic paute ahi uh hi Hebru lai pen a lamdang leh a tuam mahmahna khat ahihleh taklam akipan veilam manoh (from right to left) a kigelh ahih baan ah, a tuung in lai-aw (vowel) om lou laimung (consonant) vual 23 a kibawl ahi hi. Ad 600 leh 900 kikal vel in palestina gam a Tiberias khua pansan Hebru laisiam (Hebrew Scholarte’n lai-aw (vowel) 10 hon bawlbehna ziak in Mosorite cih in a om ua, Laisiangthou a thumal leh thutuun kheekkhe mai a laimung(consonant) tung, nuai leh sung a pilvangtak a vowel ciamtehna a koih ziak un tua laisiangthoute pen Mosoretic text hong kici hial hi.

 

North Africa leh Alexandria khopi a hong peemluut Judate’n Hebru pau a theih nawn louh kia uh hi lou in, Babylon gam a kipan a pau thak a hon puak uh “Aramaic [Aram pau]” nasan mangngilh in Greek pau kia hong zang uh hi. Hiai Greek pau leh lai kia thei Judate aa diing in kikhopna inn [synagogue] a Hebru pau a kigelh Thukhun lui laisiangthou simkhiak phattuamna bei hong suak hi. Alexandria a laibulii [library] phungvuhna diing leh Judami and Juda sakhua (biakna)  zui hinapi a Juda pau leh Hebru lai sim thei nawn loute khualna in Aigupta gam kumpipa Philadelphus kici Ptolemy II in Pharos tuikulh [Island of Pharos] ah Jerusalem a kipan  Juda laisiam 72 [nam 12 lak a mi 2 zel] samkhawm in Greek pau in Thukhun lui laibute letkhesak hi. Hiai Thukhun lui laibute letkhetu mi 72 a lompi a kigen ciang in 70 kici a, huai Greek version pen Septuagint [sawmsagih]ahihkeileh LXX kici Jesu leh a sawltakpite’n a laaksawn mun mahmah uh, “Laisiangthou hici in a ci,” “hici bang a gelh ahi” cih khawngte zong hiai Septuagint apan kilasawn (quoted/quotation)ngenta ahi ua, Thukhun Thak in bangmah kheek lamdanna nei lou in hiai Septuagint a pan in mun 350 tak a lasawn hi. Nasepte 8:27-30 a kigen Ethiopia micilgeh in a Laisiangthou sim zong Septuagint apan ahi hi. Thukhun Thak laibu tengteng zong Koine Greek a kigelh vek ahi hi.Mi khenkhat in Matthai in a gelh taangthupha[Gospel] pen a tuung in Hebru[Hebrew] ahihkeileh Aramaic a kigelh himahleh Greek a hong kikhonung kheek hi diing in gen in gingta mahle uh,tuni tanpha in Hebru hiam Aramaic hiam khutgelh khatta beek leng kimu lou in,Greek a kigelh khutgelh[manuscript] ngenta hi zaw hi.

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