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Paite Pau a Thuvualcing Kibawldan

Written by  M. Nguldoukhup Published inGeneral Monday, 16 July 2018 08:51
Paite Pau a Thuvualcing Kibawldan

PLS in a sai Paite Litarary Festival 2018 sung a Paite Pau Bulsuutna dia kigelh:

 

 

PAITE PAU A THUVUALCING KIBAWLDAN

(SYNTAX IN PAITE)

 

 

 

Thumapi: Amasapen in, i thupi a i lut ma in PAITE pau dinmun tamlou i enkik zual diing. Paite pau pen TIbeto-Burman pau aa-hiang khat ahih bang in a muh theih tan a pau tuamtuamte ana sui Dr. G.A. Grierson in 1904 kum a ana bawl Linguistic Survey of India, Vol.III, Part, III ah Paite pen Northern Chin Sub-group sung ah a koih hi. Major John Shakespear in 1904 census a gelhna ah “Paite mite pen ngeina leh tawndan ci tuam khat nei a hi uh. Paite pau pen Lusei leh nam dangte aa diing in theihtel haksa, pau tuam khat ahi” ciin amah muhdan ana gen a, a dik mah hiin i thei hi. Pu Sing Khaw Khai in hiciin ana gen hi. “ Nidang in Tedimte pen Paite cih a na om hi khamoh lou diing hi. Huciiin Manipur, India sung a Tedim pau zangte’n a minam uh minlohna diing in hiai min ana zang uh” ( Zo People and Their Culture, p.13). Paite cih min pen 1931 Census of india ahmi nam ,min dia kilawm lua sak louh man in Burma ah zat in ana om nawnkei cih ahi. Himahleh India gam ah bel Paite cih pen 1956 kum in Scheduled Tribe khat in India kumpi in theihpihna ana peta hi. Beh-leh-phung a kitanau ban ah, pau-le-ham leh ngeina tawndan bangkim ah India leh Myanmar a teeng Tedim Chin leh Paite kici a kinaihpen cih phet hi lou in a kibang, chi khat, sa khat minam khat i hi uh cih khoziing- khovak in hon theihpih hi. I pau zatdan leh aw kaih kibang lou zekzek om i cihte kum 100/200 tham bang gam tuam lei tuam a kikhen a, hoihtak a kikawmtuahna leh kithuzaktuahna ana om lou ahihman in a huci diing mah ahi, Gam khat sung a teengte leng i khua a tuam dungzui a khobing pau leh aw- kaih tuam om ahi!

 

I kitanauna i gen cia’n khanglam, saklamte mai-et hiam thupi bawl tuam i hi mawk kei a akimidangbawl thei lou unau khat i hihna gen i hi zaw. Leitung pumpi ah, China gam ah Thailand ah, Malaysia ah i beh- i phung , i pau a kihoupih theih mi zong le cin, Chin state, Kalay leh Manipur leh Mizoram loungal a mu lou diing na hi! Tanau, unau piangkhawm bang leng kikawm tam a i kithuahtam aleh i kitanauna kip semsem hi.

 

 

PAITE PAU ‘LANGUAGE’ AHI.

 

Census of India, 2001 in hilhcetna (definition) a piak dungzui in mi 10.000 ahihkeileh a tamzaw in a zat peuhmah language[pau picing] a sim ahi a, a dangte bel Mother-tongue ciin ciamteh hi. Tua lou in mi 10,000 sang a tawmzaw in pau a zat pen a mangthei (endangered) a sim ahi. Hucibang in Manipur Government in 1988 kum apat in Paite pau leng class X a subject a tawi diing Modern Indianlanguage (MIL) khat in honna theihpihta hi,. Paite/Tedim pau pen mihing 200,000 vel in a zat International language khat ahi hi. Paite pen kei mimal a di’n ka mother-tongue ahi a, gam pumpi a et in “ Tribal dialect” ahi a, himahleh ahihna tak pau picing(language) ahi.

 

 

LAI PAU

 

Kholak houlimna i ci hiam koi munpeuh a i paukhaak dandan a kimaingalsaktak a kihoupihnate a i zat zel informal speech (Colloquialism) cih a om hi. Tua lou pau dik leh pau tang thei pen, pau kilawm theihpen zang a i paukhiak formal speech hiam a gelh writing cih leng a om hi . Tua formal language hiam a gelh thoh pen Laipau i cih ahi hi.

 

Pau ahihkeileh laipau suutna a poimoh bul khat Syntax ahi. Syntax cih pen thuvualcing( sentence) sung a thumal/kammalte (nih-le-thum ahihleh) ahi diing bangtak, a kizom diing dantak a zopkhawm, lepkhawm genna ahi. Thumal nih syn (Greek pau a sun cih Latin pau a syn ci a kilasawn) – khawm (together) cih leh tax, “ a kituak a koih” cih apat hong kila ahi hi. Thumal lepkhawm i cih pen a thukibulh khawmdan (grammatical) a dik ahih diing ban ah –gen-le-kawk nei ( meaningful) ahih ngai / pelmoh hi. “Bawng in lai a sim” ci le hang a thu-kivolhdan (grammar) a dik a, himahleh bawng in lai sim cih thil om theilou ahihman in gen nei (meaningful) lou hi. A grammar pen a form ahi a, thumal kizomkhawmte gen leh kizopdan pen a function ahi.

 

 

SENTENCE BAWLDAN TOH KISAI A THEIHTUAK LEH NAVAKHUAI THU TAMLOU

 

I paukhiak ciang in bel i ut dandan in thil i gen thei a, i pau kin leh ol ah sentence khat i paukhiakdan ah a kinga mai hi. Himahleh lai a i hon gelhkhiak ciang in thumal (word) leh laimal, a biik in vower( lai-aw) te consonant (laimung) toh gelhmat diing, gelhmat louh diing leh gawm di leh dawm louh di cihte i buai ton om hi. Bang a cih ciang a “a”,“i”,”in”,”e” toh gelhmat diing hi hiam? Etsakna di’n Lianpuinehuaikeiaahiaci ciin gelhkhawm dendon lehang sim haksa hi. Bangciin gelh leng a hoih dia leh? : Lianpu in E! huai kei-a ahi a ci”ciin gelh le hang ciang mahmah hi.

 

Sentence bawldan leh paidan ah Paite pau leh English pau khawng a kibang kei hi. English a dan i zui thei mawk kei a, zuih leng i sawm kei mah hi.

 

English khawng ah sentence sung a thumal kizomdan pen Subject + verb + object ahi. Paite pau ah subject + object + verb ahi.

 

English :              Thangpu                        Sings                         a song

                                    Subject                          Verb                          Object

 

Paite:                      Thangpu in                      la                               a sa

                                    Subject                        Object                         verb

 

Direct leh indirect object toh:

 

English:                  Igt               gave                  him                    a present

                                    Subject         Verb             Ind. Object          Dir. Object

 

Paite:                     Ken             amah               thilpiak                 ka pia

                                    Subject       Ind. Object     Dir. Object            verb

 

 

 

TERMINOLOGY

 

Grammatical term:-Noun, Verb, object, clause, cih leh adang dangte Paite in I nei nai kei hi. Himahleh i pau paidan leh thumal kilepdante suina leh gencetna diing in Latin pau leh English khawng a min ana phuahsate uh i zang hi lel zaw hi. Paite pau ah preposition cih a om kei a, Postposition om zaw hi “The book ison the table” cih Paite ah Dohkan tung ah laibu a om cih hi zaw hi Adjective leng noun thumal ma a om lou in noun nung ah hong pai hi. Siampu is a good boy, Hoih cih pen Paite ah “ Siampu naupang hoih ahi” ciin noun nung a a om hi. Hiaite Paite pau leh English pau a kibatlouh dan etsakna tam lou i gen ahi.

 

 

PAITE PAU A SENTENCE KIBAWL DAN TOH KISAI THEIHCIAN POIMOH DIAKTE

 

Thuvualcing khat sung a Subject concord particle leh pronominal concord particle ‘a’, ‘ka’, ‘na’, ‘i’,’uh’. cihte a kizatdan:

 

  1. Naungek a kap    (‘a’ pen subject pronominal concord particle ahi a, noun”naungek”genna ahi. Tuamdinsak diing ahi)
  2. Ken ka na en diing    ( ‘ken’ pronoun ahi a ‘ka’ pen ‘ken’ genna ahi)
  3. 3.     Ei khote’n i zou kei    (‘I’ pen subject/noun ‘ei khote’n’ cih genna pronomnal

concord ahi)

  1. 4.     Ka pai uh.    (Subject pen plural ahihman in plural Subject concord particle

      ‘uh’ cih in a zui hi)

 

 

A NAVAKHUAI

 

         1.        Mabelh (Prefix) a ‘a’ a pannate ah adverb thumal toh gelhmat diing ahi. Etsakna atawntung in , avangkim in, akumsin in . Adjective toh ahoihte, asan, akilawm.

         2.        Himahleh particle “a” cih verb leh noun thumal toh gelhmat louh diing ahi

Verb: A nui hi. A dawn hi. Noun: A khe na a sa bawng a mei in kai ken. Thangpu a pa kiang ah a om (Parataxis)

         3.        ‘A’ pen pronoun (Pronominal concord particle) ahihleh adjective hiam verb thumal toh kikaaksak diing ahi , Etsakna: Toupa A hoih hi. Sahang a hawk

         4.        Conditional “ if” hiam “ unless “ cihte Paite pau ah. Aleh, ahihleh, kei-aleh, kei-ualeh ci a thumal khat a gelhkhawm ahoih hi. Vowel leh vowel a kizom khak ciang in simkhelh louhna diin a a kal a gitphei (-) hyphen koih diing ahi.

         5.        Paite pau “in” cih Subject in thil a hih genna action word ma ah tuam dinsak in kizang hi. Lianpu in inn a lam. Hucibang in instrumental case marker a akizat cian leng kituamdinsak hi. Na ciang in sat in . Purposive case marker hiam future tense marker ban ah leng ‘in’ cih tuamdin diing ahi. Na pilna diing in lai sim in.”

         6.        Zaw, lah cih conjunction thumalte Paite pau ah atuam in kidingsak hi. Nang zaw na bel lua. Nang lah, hoh lou di maw?

 

Theih diing: English gen louh in Meitei pau leh Paite pau ah ‘in’ zaw’ lah’ leng/zong cihte i gelhdan kibang lou hi.

Meitei Pau: Eisuh lakke (kei leng/zong k’ong pai diing)

Meitei pau: Madi ahanni ( Amah zaw upa/taltaak ahi)

Meitei Pau: Tombana thabak sui (Tomba in nna a sem)

 

Meiei Pau ah di, na suh cihte noun hiam pronoun thumal toh kigelh mat hi, Hucibangmah in sentence a conclusive particle hi, ahi, cihte leng verb hiam adjective toh gelhmat ahi. Locative marker ah, uah cihte Paite pau ah a tuam in kidingsak hi. Tedim ah a teeng uh. Na khua uah ka hong hoh diing . English ah leng kituamdinsak hi. In, at, to. Meitei pau ah bel Tedimda, Na khoigi khunda, ciin kigelhmat hi.

 

         7.        English a modal-te peuhmah- can, may, could, might, shall, should. will, would, must, used to,ought to,, have to, dare, cihte, Paite pau ah thumal khat ngen a kigen in kituamdinsak hi. Meitei pau ah bel verb thumal toh kigelhmat tangpi hi- adiakin, Tense markerte Etsakna: Ka pai diing, Vuah a zu maithei, Hong hoh ngeingei /teitei in. Ka neulai un bukteh ka kineih sek uh,. Na nu-le pa thu na man kilawm ahi. Ka pai angai, Hon sel ngam maw.

         8.        Compound sentence pen co-ordinating conjuction thumal ‘a’ ‘la’,’leh’ ,’uleh’ ‘mahleh’ / himahleh, ‘ahihkeileh’, ‘hiam’, cihte a zopkhawm ahi. Main clause nih kizomkhawm ahi.

 

Ni a tum a ka pai uh

Thou inla an ne in

Na hong paileh hon tawn in

Amah pil kisa mahleh hai ahi

Aman theilou himahleh moh paw thou diing ahi

Nang na va gen hia ahihkeileh mi na sawl hia nang cih dandan ahi.

 

         9.        Complex Sentence i cih ‘Principal/Main clause khat leh Dependent/subordinating clause kigawm ahi a, ‘cih’ hiam’ ‘lam’ (ahihlam/ahihdan) cih akal a om ahi

 

Amah mipil ahi cih                                 ka thei

Subord clause                                         Main Clause

 

Amah mi hausa ahih lam                      ka thei kei uh

Subord clause                                          Main clause

 

Atung a i gen compound sentence a co-ordinating conjunction thumalte object neilou intransitive verb thumal toh kizom ahihleh ‘a’, ‘mahleh’ cihte a tuamdin diing ahi. Tui a sou a suankhia in. Vuah zu mahleh a vot kei. Himahleh ‘la’ chi verbal particle ‘in’ hiam’, ‘un’ toh akigelhmat zel hi. Hong pai inla, inn ah om in; Kisik unla kiheinawn un. ‘Va’, ‘hon’,hong’ cihte Prefix ciah ahi kei ua, Directional case marker cih theih ahi uh, Thumal a tuam a dinsak diing ahi uh. Tui va la in. N’on laibu khelh hon peta in. Nang hong pe mai in

 

      10.      Past perfect tense leh Present Perfect tense leh Future perfect tense genna ah verb thumal ta cih belhlap navakhuai hi. Amah zan in a a paita. Himahleh Paite pau ah English khawng bang in tense hiam number dungzui a verb thumal, mel-le-puam kikhek lamdang (inflection) a om kei hi . Past tense pen Time word in kigen a, verb thumal a ‘ta’ hiam’, khin’ cih belhlap lou in thil tun hun kigen thoh zel hi Amah ni kum in a si. Zan in vuah a zu.

 

Theih diing: English a thumal nih-le thum pha Nominal hiam Verbal sentence-te Paite pau a leng thumal nih –le-thum mah hihsak diing ahi ci leng diklou diing hi.

 

Etsakna: “They went home” cih “ Amau innah apaiuh” ciin thumal thum suah in gelhmat netnot mawk le hang hoih lou in a sim leng haksa diing hi. Amau inn ah a pai uh ci a i gelh tuam tiltel diing ahi.

 

Sentence khat hinapi ‘a’ hiam’ua’ cih a tawp a full stop a kikoih leh Inconclusive ( bukimlou) leh thumal lepkhawmdan kituuplou suak hi, A, AW, B, CH thubulte gen a buaipih nawn lou in alphabet bukimzaw Roman Script a laimal 26 te a kibulphuhtou in khanlet leh picinlam manoh ta ni hang, unau.

 

THUSITNA: I pau gelhdan tungtang a micih in i theih a i zuih dia hoih (keimah in leng zuih ka sawm) Paite lai gelhdan by Dr. H. Kamkhenthang, Laigelh Dan Tangpi by Dr. Tualchin Neihsial, leh Zolus Magazine- te lai gelhdan a buai lou a i kituahna diing a etteh leh zuih pipen a neih hoihpen diing hi. Hucilou a mi tenteng in i deih dan, i ngaihdan ciat pipih a i ut dandan a i gelhleh i pau leh i lai in siatna lianpi tuak ngeingei diing hi. A tung a sentence bawldan toh kisai i gente tawmcik phet ahi. I minam, i pau leh i lai i itna ziak in lai gelhdan hoihzawte leh khanlethuai zawte i zuitou zel diing uh.

 

 

 

Lamka                                                           

July 06,2018                                                                                                                                                                                                       M. Nguldoukhup

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